Volume 52, Issue 1-2, 2017

20230400-full
Issue 4, 2023

ELECTROTECHNICA & ELECTRONICA E+E

Vol. 58. No 4/2023
Monthly scientific and technical journal
Published by:
The Union of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications /CEEC/, BULGARIA

20230400-full

C O N T E N T S

Dejan Jovanovic, Vladimir Stankovic, Nenad Cvetkovic, Dragana Zivaljevic, Dragan Vuckovic
Investigating the effects of glasses on electric field distribution from a mobile phone inside the human eye during web surfing 75

Jelena Đorđević Kozarov, Platon Sovilj, Milan Simić, Marjan Urekar, Milica Stojanović, Dragan Živanović
Further experimental research of interval overlapping method for biomedical signal measurement 81

Natalija V. Ivković, Ana N. Vučković, Mirjana T. Perić, Dušan M. Vučković
Machine learning application in cylindrical permanent magnet force calculation 88

Saša S. Nikolić, Dragan S. Antić, Nikola B. Danković, Miroslav B. Milovanović, Darko B. Mitić, Petar S. Đekić, Igor B. Kocić, Marko Ž. Živković
Application of orthogonal controllers in control of the nonlinear industrial dynamical systems 93

Aleksandar Ivanov
A review of brain-computer interfaces and their applications 100

20230400-05
A review of brain-computer interfaces and their applications

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Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have emerged as a transformative technology at the intersection of neuroscience, engineering, and computer science. This paper provides a concise overview of the recent achievements and ongoing challenges in the field of BCIs. With the ability to decode neural activity and translate it into meaningful commands, BCIs hold promise for revolutionizing diverse domains, such as medical rehabilitation, communication, prosthetics, forensics and entertainment. The paper reviews the advancements in BCI technologies, including invasive and non-invasive techniques, elucidating the contributions of machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms to signal processing.


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Ivanov A., A review of brain-computer interfaces and their applications. Electrotechnica & Electronica (Е+Е), Vol. 58 (4), 2023, pp.100-105, ISSN: 0861-4717 (Print), 2603-5421 (Online)

20230400-04
Application of orthogonal controllers in control of the nonlinear industrial dynamical systems

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In this study, we introduce a novel application of orthogonal controllers within control systems theory. Specifically, we propose a novel approach for utilizing generalized orthogonal Malmquist polynomials, also known as Müntz polynomials, to control complex nonlinear industrial systems. These polynomials are employed in the final stage of our hybrid-fuzzy orthogonal controllers. To validate the effectiveness of our approach, we implement and experiment with the proposed hybridfuzzy Takagi-Sugeno orthogonal controllers on a tower crane system, confirming significant enhancements in control efficiency.


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Nikolić S.S., Antić D.S., Danković N.B., Milovanović M.B., Mitić D.B., Đekić P.S., Kocić I.B., Živković M.Z., Application of orthogonal controllers in control of the nonlinear industrial dynamical systems. Electrotechnica & Electronica (Е+Е), Vol. 58 (4), 2023, pp.93-99, ISSN: 0861-4717 (Print), 2603-5421 (Online)

20230400-03
Machine learning application in cylindrical permanent magnet force calculation

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The intention is for this paper to be the proof of concept that permanent magnet force, usually calculated using method based on fictitious magnetic charges or Ampere’s current approach, can be predicted using one of the machine learning algorithms. The application of machine learning should reduce the calculation time and allow faster simulations.


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Ivković N.V., Vučković A.N., Perić M.T., Vučković D.M., Machine learning application in cylindrical permanent magnet force calculation. Electrotechnica & Electronica (Е+Е), Vol. 58 (4), 2023, pp.88-92, ISSN: 0861-4717 (Print), 2603-5421 (Online)

20230400-02
Further experimental research of interval overlapping method for biomedical signal measurement

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Following the idea for the device development for precisely measurement of biomedical signals, the development of a computer-based instrument has begun. To design and realize the computer-based instrument for measurement of non-stationary biomedical signals, simulation model and experimental hardware solution have been developed. The overlapping interval method used in this research is based on stochastic analog-to-digital conversion, with low-resolution A/D converters and accumulation. As an example of a nonstationary signal, the electrooculography signal was used. Due to the limited speed of data transfer between the PC and the PSB, the possibility of measuring a minor number of Fourier coefficients was investigated in this paper. The results were compared with the results obtained by measuring a larger number of Fourier coefficients and by classical digital measurement. The obtained results are presented, analyzed and discussed.


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Jelena Kozarov D., Sovilj P., Simić M., Urekar M., Stojanović M., Živanović D., Further experimental research of interval overlapping method for biomedical signal measurement. Electrotechnica & Electronica (Е+Е), Vol. 58 (4), 2023, pp.81-87, ISSN: 0861-4717 (Print), 2603-5421 (Online)

20230400-01
Investigating the effects of glasses on electric field distribution from a mobile phone inside the human eye during web surfing

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This paper discusses the effects of the glasses exposed to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones on the electric field distribution inside the human eye. The numerical analysis has been performed for the case when the mobile phone is used for web surfing at the frequency of 2.6 GHz. Obtained results are presented within different biological tissues from which the human eye model was made. Since the human body consists of various tissues and organs, each needs to be described in terms of its corresponding electromagnetic properties. A realistic 3D model of the human head has been created to obtain the most accurate results. The main aim of this investigation is to determine the electric field distribution in the human eye. For this research, besides the realistic model of a human head, it was necessary to develop a realistic eye model formed of nine different tissues and a model of glasses with a metal frame. A comparative analysis of the model behavior with and without glasses has been carried out to evaluate the effects of the glasses with metal frame. Finally, the paper presents the results of electric field distribution for a horizontal cross-section of the human head model.


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Jovanovic D., Stankovic V., Cvetkovic N., Zivaljevic D., Vuckovic D., Investigating the effects of glasses on electric field distribution from a mobile phone inside the human eye during web surfing. Electrotechnica & Electronica (Е+Е), Vol. 58 (4), 2023, pp.75-80, ISSN: 0861-4717 (Print), 2603-5421 (Online)

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Issue 3, 2023

ELECTROTECHNICA & ELECTRONICA E+E

Vol. 58. No 3/2023
Monthly scientific and technical journal
Published by:
The Union of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications /CEEC/, BULGARIA

20230300-full

C O N T E N T S

Pavlina Shopova, Maria Todorova, Lilyana S. Koleva, Elena G. Koleva
Evaluation of the integration of systems for quality management in the field of higher education 51

Emil E. Vladkov, Stanimir T. Kolev
Software-defined radio (SDR) versus Digital Signal Processor (DSP) hardware – a comparison of approaches in teaching RF communications at Sofia University 58

David Livshits, Georgi Hristov
Using artificial intelligence for object recognition in three-dimensional video games 66

Juliana R. Svetlozarova, Ilonka D. Vutova
Computer vision 71

20230300-04
Computer vision
Juliana R. Svetlozarova, Ilonka D. Vutova

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This is a report on the topic “Computer Vision”. Its analysis examines issues related to the recognition of objects and the determination of their spatial organization. In order to recognize these objects that enter the image, it is necessary to have a system (biological or technical) and to train it. The computer vision system is a set of specialized devices for forming the image of the environment.

 

Докладът представя разработка на тема “Компютърно зрение”. В анализа му са засегнати въпроси, свързани с разпознаването на обектите и определянето на пространствената им организация. За да се разпознаят тези обекти, които влизат в изображението е необходимо да има система (биологична или техническа) и тя да бъде обучена. Системата за компютърно зрение е съвкупност от специализирани устройства за формиране на изображението за околната среда.


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Svetlozarova J.R., Vutova I.D., Computer vision. Electrotechnica & Electronica (Е+Е), Vol. 58 (3), 2023, pp.71-74, ISSN: 0861-4717 (Print), 2603-5421 (Online)

20230300-03
Using artificial intelligence for object recognition in three-dimensional video games
David Livshits, Georgi Hristov

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The report explores the use of artificial intelligence for object recognition in three-dimensional video games. A methodology for collecting a sufficient volume of images, which are subsequently analyzed and processed by adding key points, is presented. The set key points serve to train the artificial intelligence that is to be used. Two libraries for training and working with artificial intelligence are examined and their applicability is analyzed. Proposals are made for integrating the achievements of artificial intelligence in object recognition in video games into various socioeconomic spheres.

 

В доклада се разглежда тематика свързана с използването на изкуствен интелект за разпознаване на обекти в триизмерни видеоигри. Представена е методика за събиране на достатъчен обем от изображения, които впоследствие се анализират и обработват, чрез добавяне на ключови точки. Поставените ключови точки служат за обучението на изкуствения интелект. Разгледани са две библиотеки за обучението и работата на изкуствения интелект, като е направен анализ на приложимостта им. Направени са предложения за интегрирането на достиженията на изкуствения интелект за разпознаване на обекти във видеоигри в различни социално- икономически сфери.


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Livshits D., Hristov G., Using artificial intelligence for object recognition in three-dimensional video games. Electrotechnica & Electronica (Е+Е), Vol. 58 (3), 2023, pp.66-70, ISSN: 0861-4717 (Print), 2603-5421 (Online)

20230300-02
Software-defined radio (SDR) versus Digital Signal Processor (DSP) hardware – a comparison of approaches in teaching RF communications at Sofia University
Emil E. Vladkov, Stanimir T. Kolev

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Teaching modern communication technology undoubtedly requires students to be familiar with the latest standards for digital radio frequency transmission and modulation. In times of rapid development in this field, however, this turns out to be a real challenge, as communication standards change literally in months. The introduction of new, more powerful technologies for fast transmission over radio frequency networks requires a versatile approach to familiarization with coding and modulation methods. Such an approach provides the so-called software-defined radio, which is about to replace almost completely specific hardware and software systems based on specialized radio frequency interfaces and digital signal processors. The purpose of the present study is to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches for studying modern radio frequency communications within the framework of the respective courses offered to students at the Faculty of Physics of the Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, namely the use of Analog Devices ADALM-Pluto SDR, representative of the software-defined radio modules, and the study of RF digital transmission methods using a digital signal processor development system and purpose-built hardware, representing the older approach to teaching the subject.

 

Преподаването на съвременни комуникационни технологии несъмнено изисква студентите да са запознати с най-новите стандарти за цифрово радиочестотно предаване и модулация. Във времена на бурно развитие в тази сфера обаче това се оказва истинско предизвикателство, тъй като стандартите за комуникация се променят буквално за месеци. Въвеждането на нови, по-мощни технологии за бърз пренос на данни чрез радиочестотни мрежи изисква универсален подход за запознаване с методите на кодиране и модулация. Подобен подход осигурява така нареченото софтуерно-дефинирано радио, което е на път да замени почти напълно специфичните хардуерни и софтуерни системи, базирани на специализирани радиочестотни интерфейси и цифрови сигнални процесори. Целта на настоящото изследване е да разкрие предимствата и недостатъците на двата подхода за изучаване на съвременните радиочестотни комуникации в рамките на съответните дисциплини, предлагани на студентите от Физическия факултет на СУ “Св. Климент Охридски”, а именно: използването на ADALM-Pluto SDR-модула на Analog Devices, представител на софтуерно-дефинираните радио модули, и изучаването на радиочестотни цифрови методи за предаване с помощта на развойна система на цифров сигнален процесор и специално създаден за целта хардуер, представляващ по-стария подход към преподаването на материята.


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Vladkov E.E., Kolev S.T., Software-defined radio (SDR) versus Digital Signal Processor (DSP) hardware – a comparison of approaches in teaching RF communications at Sofia University. Electrotechnica & Electronica (Е+Е), Vol. 58 (3), 2023, pp.58-65, ISSN: 0861-4717 (Print), 2603-5421 (Online)