Volume 52, Issue 1-2, 2017

Issue 3-4, 2022

ELECTROTECHNICA & ELECTRONICA E+E

Vol. 57. No 3-4/2022
Monthly scientific and technical journal
Published by:
The Union of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications /CEEC/, BULGARIA

20220304-full

C O N T E N T S

ELECTRON BEAM EQUIPMENT
Peter J. Oving, Samuel De Sousa
Development of an Electron beam probing device for beam analysis at the exit of a 90° Electron beam bending system for inside welding 31

Atif Alvi, Munawar Iqbal, Faizan Elahi, Ghalib U. Islam
Design and Simulation of 400-kW Sheet Beam Optics and Magnetic Field for DC and RF Power Sources 36

PLASMA-BASED ION IMPLANTATION
Koji Kakugawa, Shoya Umemoto, Takumi Noda, Kenta Nosaki, Takeshi Tanaka And Katia Vutova
Effect of the conductivity of the petri dish placed on the electrode on the surface layer of the spores in the PBII method 41

Shoya Umemoto, Koji Kakugawa, Kenta Nosaki, Takumi Noda, Takeshi Tanaka and Katia Vutova
The sterilization effect of plasma-based ion implantation on prokaryotic microorganisms 46

COMPANY PRESENTATIONS
Matthias Wahl, Stefan Milchev
EVOBEAM GmbH, Mainz, Germany

Thomas Schoesser
ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH, Germany

Development of an Electron beam probing device for beam analysis at the exit of a 90° Electron beam bending system for inside welding
Peter J. Oving, Samuel De Sousa

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The quality of EBWelds, realized by a 90° deflected Electron Beam, depends on operator defined parameters of the welding equipment, like gun voltage and current, beam centering, focus current(s), bending magnet current, welding distance and speed. The analysis of the Ebeam at the weld seam position permits beam quality assurance and thereby to maintain constant weld results in time. The small distance between the beam exit and the weld seam position asks for a special analyzer concept without the use of beam deflection. Techmeta’s TechScan (Patented beam analyzer system using a rotating disc scanner) and Techmeta’s TechBend (Patented 90° beam deflection system) have been adapted and associated to generate an instantaneous and undisturbed image of the EBeam current density distribution at the weld seam position. The high scan speed permits the analysis of medium power EBeams with real weld parameters. The probing device has been used to define the parameter set for the inside welding of Niobium half cells at equator and iris position. This paper presents the probing device setup, the operating mode and experimental results.


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Oving P. J., De Sousa S. Development of an Electron beam probing device for beam analysis at the exit of a 90° Electron beam bending system for inside welding. Electrotechnica & Electronica (Е+Е), Vol. 57 (3-4), 2022, pp.31-35, ISSN: 0861-4717 (Print), 2603-5421 (Online)

Design and Simulation of 400-kW Sheet Beam Optics and Magnetic Field for DC and RF Power Sources
Atif Alvi, Munawar Iqbal, Faizan Elahi, Ghalib U. Islam

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We present the design, simulation and analysis of 400 kW sheet beam gun. The beam optics, beam envelop and the magnetic field of the gun is designed and then simulated in CST PS. 100% beam transmission is achieved at the target similar to the size of the electron source. A space charge beam current of 5 A is obtained at 80 kV of acceleration voltage. Deformation calculated by the thermal analysis at 3000 °C temperature of the cathode has no significant effect on the electrodes. Besides metallurgical applications, the beam perveance 0.22 μP at 80 kV is useable for RF power amplification in klystron technology for linear accelerators.


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Alvi A., Iqbal M., Elahi F., Islam G. Design and Simulation of 400-kW Sheet Beam Optics and Magnetic Field for DC and RF Power Sources. Electrotechnica & Electronica (Е+Е), Vol. 57 (3-4), 2022, pp.36-40, ISSN: 0861-4717 (Print), 2603-5421 (Online)

Effect of the conductivity of the petri dish placed on the electrode on the surface layer of the spores in the PBII method
Shoya Umemoto, Koji Kakugawa, Kenta Nosaki, Takumi, Noda Takeshi Tanaka, Katia Vutova

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Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) method is a technique that allows uniform ion implantation to a sample by applying a negative voltage to the model to draw and accelerate ions in the ion sheath existing around the piece. We are researching to apply the PBII method as a new pasteurization technology. This study investigated how the different conductivity of Petri dishes used for sample processing affects the cell surface layer of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores. The PBII treatment conditions were as follows: gas pressure: 5 Pa, treatment time: 10 min, gas type: nitrogen, applied voltage: -3 kV to -5 kV, RF: 60 VA, petri dish material: glass or stainless steel. After PBII treatment, the spore surface was observed using a scanning electron microscope. When spores were observed by scanning electron microscopy, it was found that the spore surface condition was different between the glass petri dish and the stainless steel petri dish. The sterilization effectiveness and ion density calculations at -3 kV showed significantly higher with the stainless steel petri dish. On the other hand, when the applied voltage was -5 kV, they were no longer quite different. It is suggested that this difference is due to differences in conductivity resulting from the material of the petri dish. Therefore, it was found that it is better to use a Petri dish having good conductivity to improve the sterilization effect using a lower applied voltage condition.


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Kakugawa K., Umemoto S., Noda T., Nosaki K., Tanaka T., Vutova K. Effect of the conductivity of the petri dish placed on the electrode on the surface layer of the spores in the PBII method. Electrotechnica & Electronica (Е+Е), Vol. 57 (3-4), 2022, pp.41-45, ISSN: 0861-4717 (Print), 2603-5421 (Online)

The sterilization effect of plasma-based ion implantation on prokaryotic microorganisms
Shoya Umemoto, Koji Kakugawa, Kenta Nosaki, Takumi, Noda Takeshi Tanaka, Katia Vutova

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The Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) method is capable of low-temperature and short-time sterilization. In this study, we investigated the sterilization effect of PBII treatment on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria’s vegetative cells. First, we examined the cell surface of Escherichia coli to clarify the effect of the different gas types on PBII. As a result of morphological change observed by scanning electron microscope, the surface of the cell on E. coli scraped and had many holes under the following conditions: O₂ atmosphere, 500 Hz frequency, 50 μs delay time,10 μs pulse width, −4 kV pulse voltage, 48 VA RF power, and a 10 min exposure time. It clarified that oxygen gas highly damaged vegetative cells more than the nitrogen gas treatment and the untreated. Second, we investigated PBII treatment’s effect on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The sterilization effect of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus were obtained 6.1 D and 6.9 D, respectively, under the O₂ atmosphere and −4 kV pulse voltage. Regardless of the differences in the cell wall structure, oxygen gas was able to sterilize prokaryotic vegetative cells effectively.


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Umemoto S., Kakugawa K., Nosaki K., Noda T., Tanaka T, Vutova K. The sterilization effect of plasma-based ion implantation on prokaryotic microorganisms. Electrotechnica & Electronica (Е+Е), Vol. 57 (3-4), 2022, pp.46-50, ISSN: 0861-4717 (Print), 2603-5421 (Online)

20220102-full.png
Issue 1-2, 2022

ELECTROTECHNICA & ELECTRONICA E+E

Vol. 57. No 1-2/2022
Monthly scientific and technical journal
Published by:
The Union of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications /CEEC/, BULGARIA

20220102-full

C O N T E N T S

Radi P. Romansky
Technological aspects of e-governance 1

Seferin Mirtchev
Challenges for Engineering Education, Research and Innovation – Survey 8

Takeshi Tanaka, Masayuki Yamauchi, Koji Kakugawa, Toshikazu Uchida, Shigekazu Ishihara, Keiko Ishihara
Feedback control of ozone concentration in a room using an ozone generator and the Internet of Things with built-in sensor 24

20220102-01
Technological aspects of e-governance
Radi P. Romansky

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The contemporary information society has determined the main priority of digital technologies in maintaining the basic processes in society. It is often emphasized that the main feature of modern society is the accompaniment of information from organizational, commercial, social and legal innovations, including changes in business relations. This determines the important role of e-governance in public life and social communications at various levels. In this reason, the article presents an author’s view of the technological aspects of e-governance and its main component e-government as a parts of the contemporary digital age. The main technological features, participants in the processes and the defined relationship between them are presented, with emphasis on the digitalization of processes and management structures. Attention is also paid to the possible challenges to privacy and personal data in digital communications.

 

Съвременното информационно общество е определило основен приоритет на цифровите технологии при поддържане на основните процеси в обществото. Често се подчертава, че основна характеристика на съвременното общество е придружаване на информацията от организационни, търговски, социални и юридически нововъведения, включително и промени в бизнес отношенията. Това определя значимата роля на е-управлението в обществения живот и социалните комуникации на различни нива. В този смисъл статията представя един поглед на автора за технологичните аспекти на е-управлението и неговия основен компонент е- правителството като част от съвременната цифрова ера. Представени са основни технологични особености, участници в процесите и дефинираните взаимоотношение между тях, като е акцентирано на цифровизацията на процесите и управленските структури. Отделено е внимание и на възможните предизвикателства пред личната неприкосновеност и личните данни при цифровите комуникации.


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Romansky P. R. Technological aspects of e-governance. Electrotechnica & Electronica (Е+Е), Vol. 57 (1-2), 2022, pp.1-7, ISSN: 0861-4717 (Print), 2603-5421 (Online)

20220102-02
Challenges for Engineering Education, Research and Innovation – Survey
Seferin Mirtchev

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Today, the technologies are a critical driver of economic development. The engineers are crucial for effective technology management. Educating engineers who can adapt successfully to the everchanging fields of complex technologies and systems is a significant challenge. The creativity and innovative capabilities of engineers are essential for the operation and advancement of our societies. The engineers are a key contributor to the innovation process, which is of fundamental importance for our national economies. In this survey, an attempt is made to show the current state of engineering education, innovation, and research. The challenges are described, taking into account the frameworks Industry 4, Education 4 and Society 5. The educational technologies and goals are discussed. Statistics showing global trends in education are presented. The purpose of this survey is to show the importance of engineering education, innovation, and research for the development of our society, to help improve engineering education and to enable the right decisions to be made in the development and improvement of educational technologies.

 

Днес технологиите са критичен двигател на икономическото развитие. Инженерите са от решаващо значение за ефективното управление на технологиите. Обучението на инженерите, които могат да се адаптират успешно към постоянно променящите се области и сложността на технологиите и базираните на технологии системи, е значително предизвикателство. Креативността и иновативните способности на инженерите са от съществено значение за функционирането и напредъка на нашите общества. Инженерите имат ключов принос в иновационния процес, който е от основно значение за нашите национални икономики. В този обзор е направен опит да се покаже съвременното състояние на инженерното образование, на иновациите и на изследванията. Описани са предизвикателствата пред тях, отчитайки Индустрия 4, Образование 4 и Общество 5. Показани са образователните технологии и цели. Представени са статистически данни, показващи глобалните тенденции в образованието. Целта на този обзор е да покаже важността на инженерното образование, на иновациите и на изследванията за развитието на нашето общество, да помогне за подобряване на инженерното образование и да даде възможност да се вземат правилни решения при развитие и усъвършенстване на образователните технологии.


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Mirtchev S. Challenges for Engineering Education, Research and Innovation – Survey. Electrotechnica & Electronica (Е+Е), Vol. 57 (1-2), 2022, pp.8-23, ISSN: 0861-4717 (Print), 2603-5421 (Online)

20220102-03
Feedback control of ozone concentration in a room using an ozone generator and the Internet of Things with built-in sensor
Takeshi Tanaka, Masayuki Yamauchi, Koji Kakugawa, Toshikazu Uchida, Shigekazu Ishihara, Keiko Ishihara

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Recently, coronavirus has spread worldwide and is becoming a major challenge. Under such circumstances, coronavirus inactivation using ozone has been reported. We have also installed a Sigfox antenna at Hiroshima Institute of Technology and have been developing Internet of Things (IoT) devices through the Internet using the Sigfox network. In this study, an ozone generator and an IoT device, which is an ozone concentration measuring device with a Sigfox communication function, were used to show the ozone concentration on a computer. Additionally, using feedback control, we obtained a CT value of 60, which can inactivate coronavirus from 1/10 to 1/100, after operating for 24 h at an acceptable ozone concentration (less than 0.1 ppm).

 


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Tanaka T., Yamauchi M., Kakugawa K., Uchida T., Ishihara S., Ishihara K. Feedback control of ozone concentration in a room using an ozone generator and the Internet of Things with built-in sensor. Electrotechnica & Electronica (Е+Е), Vol. 57 (1-2), 2022, pp.24-30, ISSN: 0861-4717 (Print), 2603-5421 (Online)

20210912-full
Issue 9-12, 2021

ELECTROTECHNICA & ELECTRONICA E+E

Vol. 56. No 9-12/2021
Monthly scientific and technical journal
Published by:
The Union of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications /CEEC/, BULGARIA

20120912-full

C O N T E N T S

ELECTRONICS
Georgi I. Kolev
Integrated Smart Home system development 87

Elena G. Koleva, Lilyana S. Koleva, Volodia V. Dzharov, Boriana S. Spasova
Process parameter optimization of electron beam melting and refining of titanium 95

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
Lilyana S. Koleva, Asen N. Hristov
Graphical user interface for simulation of the mechanical properties of a new type of black locust plywood for construction 100

Е-LEARNING
Mariya Al. Ivanova
The role of professional digital literacy for the transformation of academic teaching 107